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Le Sucre – harvest at Chateau Recougne, AC Bordeaux Superieur 1993

1993 – Well I couldn’t have picked a worse vintage to start my life in wine. It rained almost every day for what seemed like 6 weeks. Torrential. One day in the office I saw the owner looking out of his office window at the rain, all glum and depressed. He murmured that the only happy man in Bordeaux was the guy who sold the sugar. In poor vintages back in the 90’s the Bordelais sure loved to pour sugar in the vats, called chaptalization. Of course now with climate change things are much better.

So there we were, most days, heaving these huge heavy brown sacks of sugar around the winery and dumping them into bins where they would be mixed with wine during a remontage, or pumping over. The sugar would give the yeast more food, and increase the alcohol degree.

There are strict laws in France on this topic. You have to apply for permission with the local authorities to chaptalize, you have to specify the tank, the volume, the current alcohol potential, and there are limits to which you can bump it up. Then, when the sugar man shows up with his lorry you have a certain amount of time to actually do it, like 24 hours.

Ideally you chaptalize fairly early in the ferment, but there are different logics. It usually increases the alcohol by about 1% in Bordeaux, and there is a maximum you cannot go beyond. The extra alcohol can bring more richness, weight and power to the wine and it can make an average wine taste good. It can also help very fine wines, although ideally the lower yields in fine wine should have helped obtain good grape maturity. Chaptalization is not flavouring per se, although alcohol has a taste. You are making up for a deficit in ripeness in a poor year usually. The bottom line is that all winemakers would rather not use it, partly because it is an expense too.

And in a winery during the fermentation it is very important to keep records. Because you definitely wouldn’t want to make the mistake of chaptalizing the same tank twice by accident…

Cellar hygiene Bordeaux 1993

In the early 90’s cellar hygiene was not what it is today. These days you have all these young winemakers graduating from schools, especially in Australia, coming out with a mantra to KEEP IT CLEAN. So clean, it’s almost sterile. Gleaming tanks, spotless floors, hoses all immaculately stored, and a very high tech lab.

Well sure, better to be clean than dirty, I suppose. But could there be a cost to this? Are so many wines tasting the same partly because of this quest for sterility? Me thinks maybe yes.

I don’t think that attempting to have a sterile cellar is a pre-requisite for making great wine. If you go to some of the very top wineries in the world it’s not always immaculate. Jaboulet’s Hermitage La Chapelle in the Rhone is a case in point. I swear the floors were made of hard mud, the concrete tanks looked like they were 100 years old with paint peeling off them, barrels were stored in a jumble-like series of stacks, and the air in the cellar seemed very damp and very heavy. Surely this was a heaven for bacteria.

Lopez de Heredia in Spain is an icon, and yet it doesn’t look all spotless to me. The wooden fermenters are 100 years old and there are gigantic cobwebs everywhere. It’s opposite of some of these hospital-like new world wineries.

But the La Chappelle wine is better than almost any other Syrah in the world. It was so good that the Bordeaux 1st growths used to buy it for a little injection of supercharged turbo power. And the Lopez de Heredia wines are so good you can’t talk for a moment after you have a sip of the 1945 Gran Reserva. That was made before all these lab technicians came on the scene…

Tasting the Ferments, Bordeaux 1993

I’ve had the good fortune of learning a little about tasting ferments from some of the very top winemakers in Bordeaux, Napa, Australia, and a few other places I suppose.

Back in Bordeaux in the Middle Ages, after our cellar was safe(ish) to enter, and we had taken the temperatures of each tank, the next major job was to draw samples of every single lot. We’d then take them to the main office for analysis by the Oenologist.

Wines constantly need to be checked throughout the fermentation for their progress in terms of alcohol conversion, and all the other standard tests, including the taste test. Tasting the ferments, and managing them as a result of that tasting, is a big part of the art of winemaking.

But drawing the samples often turned into a debacle. The issue was that many of the tanks in the cellar were made from concrete and they did not have a sample valve on them, which you would normally find on stainless steel tanks. So to get a sample out you had to actually crack one of the big lower valves just enough for a trickle of wine to drip out.
But this wasn’t easy. The tiniest hand movements were required to ever so slightly ease the valve open. Crack it too fast and too far open, and a monster jet of red wine would spray your chest and ricochet back onto your face as you grappled to shut the valve. This was a cruel trick to play if you were a team of two people drawing a sample. But sometimes Xavier deserved it.

Anyway, it would then be tasting time with the Oenologist. We would pour a sample, look at the color and he would comment on the extraction level for its stage of fermentation. The smell can be beautiful with sweet fresh fruit aromas and that particular fermentation note. But the key thing was really the palate, looking at the tannin, acidity, weight, flavours and balance.

Decisions would be made based on the tasting. Increase or decrease the maceration regime, add tannin using a packet of powered tannin or grape stems, aerate the tank with a delestage, chaptalize or not, heat the tank, chill it to slow the ferment down, add yeast to a tank that was not fermenting well, drain that other one because it was done and needs to come off the skins, and on and on.

In Beaujolais they call the semi-fermented juice the paradis, as in paradise. Sweetish, slightly bubbly, often tangy. Just beautiful. It’s always best to taste in the morning when your senses are fresh and everything is heightened. Tasting 40 samples before 10 am every day for weeks is fun but it is a serious job. Just make sure you spit, because you always walk out very slightly buzzed from the absorption anyway.

CO2 – The deadly gas: Run Jean-Marie, Run

The 1993 vintage was in full swing. It was week 6 and we
were all looking worse for wear, with red wine stains caked all over our
clothes. Exhaustion was setting in. We’d been working 16 hour days at our
30,000 case Bordeaux Superieur chateau, a stunning property in the hillsides of
the Right Bank, close to St.Emilion. Tired, but sense of humor still intact.

It was a motely cru standing outside the chateau doors at 7
am. Stephen represented Scotland, but had forgotten how to speak English he’d
been in France so long. Xavier, the Spaniard, a fellow 23 year old apprentice
and trouble at the best of times, and then there was some other guy whose name
I can’t remember. He drank a lot of Cognac at night.

In the French corner was Didier, the cellar master who had
lost a finger and damaged an eye over the last 15 vintages – pretty standard in
France. And then there was the big Papa, Jean-Marie, the central figure. He was
huge. His gut was barely held in by his farmer t-shirt, and you could cut your
hand on his thick 3 day stubble-trouble.

We had all gathered at 7 am on the dot to start the day’s
work in the cellar, which could often last until midnight. We were all
shattered after doing this for several weeks with barely a day off. There were
tons of ferments racing along inside the cellar doors, and carbon dioxide oozed
from every tank impregnating the air with a deadly poisonous gas.

Our ritual was to draw straws to see who might die that
morning by CO2 poisoning. The gauntlet was running through the whole cellar whilst holding your breath and opening windows and doors. It was a long cellar and you had to fling open at least 3 sets of windows and 2 huge castle-like sets of doors to aerate the cellar so that the rest of the crew could safely enter 15 minutes later. It wasn’t easy
to hit all these windows and doors, and behind our laughter was always a little
anxiety when we drew the straws.

Losing your life is a risk during the fermentation, albeit
unlikely. It is particularly dangerous when you go inside a tank to shovel out
the grape skins, where it can be hot and steamy and still with a good amount of
CO2 . Bend down to load your shovel and boom…it’s a stary stary
night. You blackout, fall into the grapes and you’re dead. Even just running
through the cellar could possibly be toxic enough.

These days, in most cellars, there are sophisticated alarms that go off
when the gas levels hit certain amounts, and in many countries you have to be
tied to the person in the tank so you can haul them out if they run into
trouble. It’s called confined space certification. But alas, at my chateau in
France in the early 1990’s, such sophistication did not exist. We relied on our
own je ne sais quoi and preferred to make important decisions after a magnum
of red during the mandatory 2 hour lunch.

We stood there, and one by one we drew the straws. And then
Jean-Marie lost it, swearing like a sailor. As his anger peeked he pulled out a packet of Gauloise and stuck a filterless smoke in his mouth and lit up, surprisingly not using his
stubble to strike the match. Nobody held their laughter back whenever it was
Jean-Marie’s dash. He was badly teased, with affection, from a distance, out of
his strike-range.

After a final drag on his cigarette, that smelt like a
diesel factory, he sucked in a few deep breaths, face turning redder by the
second, and then flung the doors open and starting actually sprinting through
the cellar as fast as he could. The cheers went up. Then we all raced around
the corner to get a view of the door where he would exit, and sure enough
this gigantic sweaty Frenchman comes flying out gasping, and the swearing
continued. We were all in hysterics.

Cellars during fermentation can be dangerous, but all year
round there are products that are used that can potentially be harmful. If you
suffer from asthma then watch out for the sulphur in liquid form, or even a hit
of the gas from a sulphur disk that is burned inside a barrel to sterilize it.
And the tanks can be cleaned with a nasty agent to get the tartrates off, that
resulted in Didier’s partial blindness. There’s a ton of other hazards.

As for Jean-Marie, every day you could count on him to be very focused on lunch, always 4 courses at the chateau from 12-2pm, and always with a frightening amount of wine offered to the workers before we went back to shovel out tanks, unsupervised.