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Wines of the Mediterranean

If I was a vine I would want to be planted along the Mediterranean coastline. My ideal vineyard would be perched on a hillside, where I could bask in the sunshine whilst looking out to sea.

After all, the Mediterranean is a more inviting climate compared to being planted in the frigid parts of northern Europe. In cold climates vines can struggle to ripen the grapes and sometimes people would criticize the wine for being acidic and astringent. And the blistering heat of fiercely hot climates isn’t that appealing either. The grapes might get over-ripe, resulting in raisin and cooked flavors. What’s worse, the French would call the wine confiture (jam).  

But in a pleasant Mediterranean climate, where the winters are mild and the summers are long, I would thrive. Plus I’d get to take 2 hour lunches and have a siesta in the afternoons.

And so it is. The wine regions that sit along the Mediterranean coastline are responsible for a huge percentage of the world’s wine production. In short, the climate is well suited to viticulture and can produce very good quality wines that are well balanced.

A huge reason for the way a wine tastes relates to the composition of the grape at harvest, namely, the balance between sugar and acidity. If the climate is too hot then wines can sometimes lack acidity and taste soupy. If the climate is too cold then the grapes can lack sugar and flavor, and taste thin and astringent. It’s rare that you see these excesses or deficiencies in wines from around the Mediterranean.  

What I like the most about wines from this area is that they are sometimes made from indigenous grape varieties. This means that they deliver flavors that differ from the usual repertoire of international grape varieties, such as Chardonnay and Shiraz. There is also an abundance of choice. The wine regions of the Mediterranean produce a prolific number of different wines.

Let’s start with sparkling wine. Spanish sparkling wines, known as Cava, mainly come from an area called Catalunya. Barcelona is the major city close by, and responsible for guzzling huge volumes of the local bubbly. The main grapes are indigenous Spanish varieties such as Macabeo, Parellada, and Xarel-lo. Try letting those roll off the tongue at your next dinner party. Intriguingly, Spanish Cava is made in the same method as Champagne, with the second fermentation taking place in bottle. They are excellent value for money and the perfect way to kick off a party.

But Spain is not the only country producing sparkling wine. In north western Italy, within striking distance of the Mediterranean, is the small DOCG of Franciacorta. This region lays claim to making the finest dry sparkling wines in Italy. The varietal mix and the methods are closely modeled on Champagne, with excellent results.

In dry white wine, the Mediterranean also produces a plethora of choices. The most unique has got to be Retsina from Greece. This white wine is flavored with pine resin. Yes, that’s right, pine resin. The reasons for this date back centuries to a time when resin was used to help preserve wines. Over time people became accustomed to the taste of resinated wines and so it became its own style of wine. Retsina certainly has its followers. Be aware that the wines can actually smell of pinesol cleaner so shall we say “it’s an acquired taste”.

More my bag would be a Viognier from the south of France. This varietal has beautiful aromatics of honeysuckle, peaches and floral notes. If you like Gewürztraminer then Viognier might hit the mark. The wines are dry, usually with a touch of residual sugar, quite full in body, with a pleasant richness in the best ones. Try a Vin de Pays D’Oc Viognier with roast chicken or a white fish.

In Rose, the beautiful wines from Provence rank amongst the very best roses in the world. They typically show vibrant pink colors, aromas of spice mingled with fresh strawberries, dry and crisp, and bang-on in the rose stakes. These are perfect for sipping on the deck; they pair well with a fresh seafood salad, and are liquid romance whilst watching the sunset. Take me to Saint Tropez.

In red wines, there is such a huge choice that making a handful of recommendations is no easy task. If you are looking for a classic wine, something big and burly but with depth and concentration, then look no further than Priorat in Spain. Many of the very best are made from Garnacha and Carinena (Grenache and Carignan in France) and sometimes blended with a handful of international grapes. This is classic stuff, and can be expensive.

Then you have a huge number of high quality wines from appellations in southern France like Corbieres and Minervois. Here, you can expect Syrah, Grenache and Mourvedre to feature in the lead roles. These are the best value red wines in France and would go well with a steak frites.    

It would be unfair not to make mention of the wines from Corsica, Sardinia, and Sicily. Now we start getting into the really unusual grape varieties. How about a glass of red from the Nielluccio grape in Corsica? Grapes such as Nero D’Avola from Italy are gaining a following as some wine lovers tire of the world of Chardonnay and Shiraz. Most are such good value that it’s not a fatal experiment if you don’t like the flavors.    

Lastly, fortified wines are also alive and well in the Mediterranean wine regions. My favorite is Banyuls. This exceptional wine comes from the steep terraced vineyards in the foothills of the Pyrenees, where France meets Spain. Grenache is king in this fortified wine, known as a vins doux naturel. The winemakers suggest that these Port-like wines are paired with chocolate. A bottle of Banyuls, a chocolate mousse, and you’ll ascend into heaven.    

So the wine regions bordering the Mediterranean offer an abundance of unique and exciting wines. The indigenous grape varieties offer the wine lover new flavors to discover. So give them a try. Besides, as you sip your way through the bottle you can dream of those gorgeous vineyards perched on a hillside, overlooking the Med.

To learn more about the wines of the Med, and all the world’s wines, take a course from us at www.FineVintageLtd.com

The Making and Marketing of Champagne

I’m full of admiration for the way the Champenois have marketed their bubbles. Nobody else has done a better job. They’ve made it synonymous with luxury, romance, special occasions, and living the good life. Simply put, we’ve fallen in love with their fizz.

The history of Champagne is fascinating. There’s a dispute over who was the first to make it bubbly because originally it was a “still” wine. In the region, Dom Perignon lays claim to being the inventor, but the winemakers in Limoux, an obscure region in southern France, accuse him of riding down on his donkey and stealing their winemaking secret, and then galloping back to Champagne to begin creating the most famous luxury brand in the world.

But it seems certain that it was not the French who were the first to make sparkling wine in commercial volumes. Instead, it was the English who created the glass that was strong enough to withstand the massive amounts of pressure in the bottle. But whatever the case, we do know that the first Champagnes were incredibly sweet, even sweeter than the dessert wine from Sauternes in Bordeaux.

Once it was made, it had to be sold. And the proximity of the Champagne region to Paris was a definite advantage because not only was there a large urban population, but it was also the home of the aristocracy. The Champagne Houses plied the monarchy with free bubbly, and the elite became customers. Monkey see, monkey do. Jean-Rene Moet, of Moet et Chandon, even built Napoleon a mansion in Champagne, just in case he stopped by. So thoughtful.

But it wasn’t just the monarchy and aristocrats in France that sipped Champagne at lavish banquets. The Champenois also managed to convince the Tsars in Russia, and the Royal Family in England, that they too should become devotees. And so, for lack of a better word, the brand of Champagne was established as a luxury product, with prices to match.

But for a luxury brand to endure it has to be consistently high quality and meet customer’s expectations time after time. And on this critical point the Champenois have delivered, at least at the pinnacle of production. Houses like Krug, Roederer, Dom Perignon, Salon, Pol Roger, Billecart-Salmon, Laurent Perrier, Lanson, Bollinger, Taittinger, and Veuve Clicquot continue to make a quality of wine that is, generally, unmatched by sparkling winemakers in other countries, and other regions in France.    

The major city is Reims and here you’ll find many of the major Houses, as well as the stunning cathedral. But in fact most of the vineyards are 30 minutes away surrounding the pretty town of Epernay. Driving over the hillside into Epernay is quite breathtaking. You can see vineyards sloping down towards the river Marne and right into the outskirts of the town itself.  

There are three key sub-regions in Champagne to be aware of. The first is the Montagne de Reims, which is a little misleading because it’s more of a large hill than a mountain. This is primarily planted to Pinot Noir, a grape that benefits from the southerly exposure that the hillside provides, in order to help ripen the Pinot grapes in this cool climate.

At the bottom of the hill, and following the river, is the Valle de la Marne, which is predominantly planted to Pinot Meunier, another black grape. The reason is that Pinot Meunier breaks its buds later in the Spring than the other varieties, and so it is less prone to the severe frosts that can result in crop loss. Keep in mind that a major reason for most Champagne being non-vintage (i.e. a blend of several different vintages) is because the Spring frosts can decimate a crop.

Finally, you have my favorite region, which is the Cotes des Blancs, home to some of the most refined wines based on the Chardonnay grape.

In terms of grape-growing, or viticulture, each village in the region has been graded on a quality scale. It ranges from 80% up to 100%, and the classification is based upon the quality potential of the vineyards in that little village. If you own vineyards in a Grand Cru village, rated 100%, then you’re laughing all the way to the bank because the Houses pay a premium for grapes from these terroirs. I love the names of some of the villages, and suggest you make a stop in Bouzy before heading to Dizy. Obviously, if you own vineyards in a village rated 80% then you’re not quite so sought-after.

One of the key aspects of the terroir is the chalky soils, and in many places it is pure chalk, good enough for a school mistress to use. In some places the chalk is so deep that it extends to a depth of 400 feet, although I can’t vouch for that personally. This chalky soil helps reflect light back onto the grapes to assist with ripening, provides excellent drainage in this wet region, provides enough moisture in the summer to keep the vine alive and the grapes maturing, and gives the wines a certain finesses, elegance, and class, that you rarely find outside of Champagne.

Once the grapes are picked in September, which is always done by hand, they are rushed to the press in order to minimize oxidation. There are strict laws regulating the amount of juice you can extract from a press load, because generally the harder you squeeze the grapes, the worse the quality becomes. Other sparkling wine producers in other countries have no such regulation, and should take note.

Once the juice is extracted it is then usually placed in stainless steel tanks, which have largely replaced the oak barrels that were commonplace until the 1970’s. The first fermentation proceeds, generally triggered by inoculation with commercial yeast, and the wine is fermented to dryness.

Now comes the true art of making great Champagne, which is the blending, or assemblage, as they call it. Each House will have a portfolio of wines, which may include a luxury cuvee, a vintage wine, the standard non-vintage, and maybe a Rose, amongst others.

The amazing part to me is that the winemaker, with the assistance of an experienced team, often has over 500 ‘lots’ to work with. A non-vintage will include wines held in reserve from previous vintages, sometimes up to 10 years ago. The potential permutations are endless. A little bit of Chardonnay from this village, a splash of Pinot Noir from another town, some reserve wine from 2, 4 or 7 years ago, 1% of this, 3% of that… and so on.  

What never ceases to amaze me is that the winemakers are able to foresee how these different lots will marry together, and what they will taste like when enjoyed years later. In some cases, the wines will not be released for 10 years. Making a pink Champagne that is destined for long ageing is the greatest challenge of all because it is so hard to get the color right, and hence the fact they are generally the most expensive wines in the luxury cuvee category.

Once the blend is made, the wine is bottled and then a small amount of yeast and sugar is added to trigger the second fermentation, which creates the carbon dioxide that dissolves in the wine. This is kept inside the bottle by sealing it with a crown cap.

And then it is taken down into the underground cellars, which are dug out of chalk, and one of the wonders of the wine world. Some of the largest Houses have several million bottles in stock, all slowly maturing, and the largest producer, Moet, has a staggering 96 million bottles ageing. That’s about $1 billion in inventory value.

After the yeast has eaten the sugar and created the bubbles, plus a tiny bit more alcohol, it starts to breakdown, or decompose. The long ageing time on the dead yeast cells, called the lees, contributes a bready, toasty, biscuit character to the wine which all contribute to the complexity and depth found on the nose and palate. No other sparkling wine region has minimum ageing times as long as the Champenois impose on themselves.

To ensure that what we actually drink doesn’t have any sediment, or dead yeast, floating around in it there is an elaborate process of gradually turning the bottles into a vertical position. This is called riddling, or remuage, and at some Houses it is still done by hand. A riddler can turn about 40,000 bottles in a day, with a precise motion that causes the sediment to gradually slip into the neck of the bottle. This is something to see, and I suggest you visit within the next 20 years because machines, called gyropalettes, are taking over from the human touch.

When the bottle is almost upside-down, and the sediment is in the neck, the bottle is dipped in a freezing brine solution and the sediment is frozen into an ice plug. The bottles are then stood upright, rattle along the bottling line, the crown cap is removed, the sediment shoots out from the massive pressure of the bubbles, and then the final sweetness of the wine is adjusted in a process called dosage. After that the bottle is labeled, the wire muzzle placed over the cork, and a long capsule, or skirt, placed over the neck. And voila, the wine is typically shipped shortly thereafter.

So, what should you buy? Here are some of my favorite brands, always reliable. To taste some of these and learn more about the wines of the world take a course at www.FineVintageLtd.com

Roederer — Cristal — Vintage

Lanson — Noble Cuvee — Vintage

Taittinger — Comtes de Champagne — Vintage

Krug — La Grande Cuvee — NV

Billecart Salmon — Rose — NV

Bollinger — R.D. — Old Vintage

Veuve Clicquot — Demi-sec — NV

Laurent Perrier — Ultra Brut — NV  

MERLOT & the love to hate

In the 90’s it was all the rage. From businessmen to 20-something socialites, everyone loved Merlot. Grape growers planted it like mad, and the market boomed. But then along came Sideways, a Hollywood movie that vilified Merlot, and suddenly the party was over. It wasn’t cool anymore. Just like Chardonnay, it was trendy to hate it. And now it seemed like there was a Pinot lover on every corner. I find all this so tiring.

But Merlot will always be one of the best grape varieties, and true wine lovers remain perplexed by the market’s fads. Its quality potential is up there with the best in the world, showcased by wines like Chateau Petrus. So whilst Pinot Noir is now the current popular choices, Merlot isn’t going to go away any time soon.

Grape growers love Merlot. Surprisingly, it is the most widely planted grape in Bordeaux, and you’ll find plenty of it in the south of France, northern and central Italy, Australia, New Zealand, and both North and South America. It’s even the most planted grape in Romania, and you’ll be able to quench your thirst with it at dozens of wineries in Bulgaria. Can’t wait.

Growers love Merlot because it ripens a week or two earlier than Cabernet Sauvignon. In frost prone areas, or places that can get serious downpours in the Fall, that extra week or two can make the difference between a successful vintage and a wash-out. 1998 in Bordeaux is a good example of this. It’s was a spectacular vintage in St.Emilion and Pomerol, but the Cabernet-dominated vineyards of the Medoc were not so lucky. It started pouring with rain before the grapes were fully ripe.

Another reason for its popularity amongst grape growers is because it can yield a bumper crop. I know that wine is all about the romance to those who drink it, but when you’re trying to make money out of producing it then yield becomes one of the most critical factors. Some varieties, like Pinot Noir, tend to produce lackluster wines when cropped above 4 tons per acre, but not so with Merlot. And as a grower, I want to produce as many grapes as possible, at quality levels suited to my commercial goals.

Merlot is also tolerant of a variety of different soil types, and doesn’t mind being planted in heavy clays. This is the primary reason why it thrives on the so-called Right Bank of the Bordeaux region, which is dominated by clay and limestone. But you’ll also find it producing some superb wines in the silty loam soils of Washington State, and some Okanagan wineries even have it planted on pure sand. So when it comes to soil types Merlot seems to be less picky compared to various other varietals.

So if you’re contemplating planting a vineyard in a warm area then Merlot is often on the list of potential candidates. It’s popular, you can grow lots of it, it’s not so fussy about soil types, and it will even ripen early for you. Hey, it might even turn out to be great quality and sell for big bucks.

But grape growing issues aside, much of the final quality will depend on how it’s made in the winery. At the top estates in the world you’ll typically see it treated to a lengthy maceration of 2-4 weeks, with the goal of extracting plenty of flavor and tannic structure. It takes well to oak, particularly French, and can be matured for 2 years in barrel before bottling. Although it has a reputation for being soft and smooth, high quality Merlot can require at least 5 years in bottle before it comes around to showing its potential quality.

On the other hand, if you are making Merlot for the cheaper end of the market, then you’d typically go for a much shorter maceration, perhaps just one week or so, to limit the tannin extraction. And instead of those French oak barrels that can run you $1,200 a pop, many wineries opt for wood chips, which cost a fraction of the price but don’t give quite the same result. Obviously the marketing department is not inclined to tell you their wine is matured using their finest oak chips. Once it gets into bottle you can open these types of wine immediately, and they are usually more pleasant to drink than a Cabernet of the same age.

You’ll often find Merlot blended with other grapes, especially Cabernet Sauvignon and Franc, but also potentially Malbec and Petit Verdot. This can be done for both premium and inexpensive wines, and is the way a winemaker can sculpt his product to the house style, layer in complexity, or adjust it to meet market demands.

So the quality of Merlot can be all over the map. You can buy a bottle at the gas station in the U.S. for peanuts, or you can go a little crazy and load up on a new vintage of Petrus at $3,000 a bottle. But the glut of uninspiring Merlot, along with the impact of Hollywood movies that have slandered the grape has caused its popularity to wane. Despite this current fashion for other varietals, when it comes to truly fine wine, there’s never been any question that Merlot is amongst the very best grapes.

After all, the finest wines can age for over 50 years. True, they don’t have quite the same longevity as Cabernet Sauvignon, but they certainly do have better ageing potential than Pinot Noir and most others. So when it comes to stocking the cellar for the long haul you’ll certainly want to consider the finer Merlots as an option.

So what should you buy? Well, the great wines of St.Emilion and Pomerol on Bordeaux’s Right Bank are still the benchmark. Pomerol is the classic appellation because the wines typically have a higher percentage of Merlot in them, usually around 80%, with just a splash of Cabernet Franc and maybe Sauvignon. These are usually tiny estates, producing a few thousand cases of wine, and hence the prices can be stratospheric. Enter stage left Petrus, Le Pin, Vieux Chateau Certan, La Conseillante and a dozen others. One of my best ever bottles was a 25 year old Petrus. I finally understood what all the fuss was about. It left everyone almost speechless.

But the top wines of St.Emilion are spectacular too. Ausone, Angelus, Pavie, Le Dome, and so many others. These tend to be slightly less opulent than Pomerol, but are always dense and concentrated all the same. If you can wait for 10 years or so you’ll see the deep ruby color turn a shade of brick red, the nose open up to reveal a spectrum of complex nuances that can include fruitcake, licorice, black cherry, chocolate, coffee, tobacco, vanilla, mushroom and wet earth. They’re to die for.

If you are intent on drinking a French Merlot but only want to spend $20 then the south of France is your best option. Since the 1990’s there have been huge plantings of this grape in the so-called Pays D’Oc. But the wines, whilst deep and full bodied, tend to have much less complexity than in Bordeaux and are more suited to a casual BBQ.

In north eastern Italy there is a surprising amount of Merlot, but I wouldn’t be in a hurry to buy these. They tend to be light in every way – color, body and ripeness levels. Instead, buy the Super Tuscans that have a heap of Merlot in them. Masseto and Tua Rita are the benchmarks, 100% Merlot, but expensive. My personal favorite is Luce, which is a blend of Merlot and Sangiovese, and is a very fine wine for around $100.

If budget cuts have you searching for a deal on European Merlot then you probably can’t beat the prices of Hungarian, Romanian and Bulgarian wines. It’s surprising just how much is planted here, and the prices can be under $10 a bottle.

If I was looking for a high quality Merlot from the New World then I would be heading for the California and Washington sections of the store. Duckhorn in Napa made a mark with some gorgeously rich and plummy Merlots, and now the grape is widely planted in California. These wines tend to have less earthiness than their Bordeaux counterparts, and burst with ripe berry fruit and the warmth of higher alcohol.

In Washington State Merlot is the most widely planted grape, and it typically plays a role in many of the finest wines. These are under-rated by consumers, but not under-priced. The local demand in Seattle for the best wines results in prices being in the high $70’s+ in western Canada.

South America, especially Chile, can produce some exceptional Merlot, both in terms of value for money and absolute quality. Sena is a benchmark amongst the famous labels, but I’m also impressed with the likes of a basic Errazuriz Merlot for just $15.

New Zealand is a sleeper that has recently shown what it can do with Merlot. A few years ago the best wines from Hawke’s Bay on the north island were put up against the finest wines of Bordeaux, and guess what? The Kiwis stole the show. But I’m more inclined to drink Pinot Noir from New Zealand, just like you would be to drink Shiraz from Australia.

One of the nice things about Merlot is that some of them can be drunk without food. They don’t have the astringency of most Cabernet and so they can slip down without much “bite”. But really these go so much better with red meats, and so whether it’s a steak, roast beef, a leg of lamb or a burger you’ll enjoy them much more than flying solo.

WINE — FOOD PAIRING

Chateau Petrus , Pomerol A nice inheritance

Chateau Le Bon Pasteur, Pomerol Roast beef and Yorkshire pudding

Chateau Grand Mayne, St Emilion Steak Frites

Tua Rita, IGT Toscana Pasta in a tomato sauce

Duckhorn, Napa Leg of lamb

Woodward Canyon, Washington State Stew

Errazuriz, Sena, Chile Bison                     

CABERNET SAUVIGNON, The Emperor of Red Wines

If I had to pick a favorite grape, which is like picking a favorite child, then it would have to be Cabernet Sauvignon.

In the final analysis Cabernet makes more great wines than any other variety. I can hear the mutterings of dissent. So I’ll present my case.

The argument is that Cabernet makes more great wines than any other variety. Aside from Bordeaux and Napa, it’s easy to rattle off famous names like Coonawarra and Margaret river in Australia, some of the great Super-Tuscans, the icon wines of Chile, and you could even make a case for Washington State, pockets of Spain, Hawkes Bay in New Zealand, parts of Sonoma, and, wait for it…., Lebanon. The same can’t be said for the other classic red varietals, including Pinot Noir.

Granted, many of these wines are blends of Cabernet with Merlot, and perhaps some Cabernet Franc, Malbec, Petit Verdot, or even Shiraz and Sangiovese. But at their core, it’s Cabernet that dominates the blend.

If price is a gauge of quality, then Cabernet Sauvignon holds the world record for the most expensive bottle of wine ever sold. When the hammer came down at the Napa Valley Auction, the cult Cabernet from Screaming Eagle went for a whopping $500,000 for a single large format bottle. People will pay more for Cabernet than any other varietal, the rare Burgundy aside.

Still not convinced? The Grands Crus of the Medoc and Pessac in Bordeaux are the most classic wines in the world and dominate the fine wine market. Wine enthusiast’s line just to get their hands on a few bottles of Chateaux Latour, Mouton, Haut Brion, Margaux and many many others. You can’t say the same for any other variety, not even Burgundy to the same degree.

In terms of ageability, the prize goes to Cabernet. Wine critics devote pages of poetic prose to describing the nuances of old vintages like 1961, 1945 and 1929, or perhaps the 1900. There are not too many Pinots, Syrahs or Merlots that can age for 100 years.  

So what is it about this grape that makes such outstanding quality wines? In their youth they are intensely colored, with a very deep ruby that can have shades of blue, black and purple. The nose typically shows intense aromas of fresh blackcurrant, cedar, chocolate, coffee and sometimes mint. The palate is always dry, rich and full bodied, with structured tannins providing backbone. The greatest wines show superb length, with an after-taste lingering for hours. The whole experience can be breathtaking

But it’s with age that Cabernet really shows its breed. The bouquet develops and become more nuanced, with notes of forest floor, wet earth, and sometimes a beautiful spice. On the palate the tannins soften, becoming smoother and more velvety, yet the wines can remain powerful and concentrated for decades.

It’s a cliché, but quality does start in the vineyard. Whilst Cabernet is fairly mobile, being planted in dozens of countries and regions, it prefers warmer climates. If I owned a vineyard in England, northern France or Germany then Cabernet wouldn’t be on the list of possibilities. My Cabernet vines would opt for Napa Valley, where they could bask in the sunshine. The cool nights are important too, helping to retain acidity and freshness.  

Cabernet can be planted on a variety of soil types, but for top quality wines the key is to find sites that have low fertility. The Medoc has a high proportion of gravel. Coonawarra is famous for their red clay soils, known as terra rossa. Poor soils can lead to great wines.

The berry size is small, and the skins are relatively thick. This contributes depth of color and the tannic backbone. When cropped at low levels, such as two tons per acre, there can be immense concentration of flavor. Some of the hillside vineyards in Napa, like Howell Mountain, have such poor soils that the yields are a fraction of the sites on the valley floor.  

The grape also ripens late, usually a few weeks after Merlot, which can be a challenge in areas prone to rain during the harvest. But when the weather stays warm and sunny, this extra ripening time allows for additional flavor development.

In the winery, the great wines usually see extended maceration. The grape juice is pumped over the skins for 3 weeks or more, extracting all the goodies from the berries. One of the great arts of making Cabernet, and all red wines for that matter, is knowing when to stop the maceration because excessive extraction can potentially lead to harsh tannins.

And then come the French oak barrels, although wineries like Silver Oak in Napa have proven that American oak can produce top notch wines too. In Bordeaux the barrel ageing time is usually between 18 to 20 months, although it can go longer. This is a winemaker’s personal preference, and Heitz Cellars in Napa shows that spectacular wines can result from 36 months aging. Some wineries go for 100% new French oak, and others prefer far less. There’s no right or wrong here. It’s just a stylistic preference.

So what should you buy when searching for these classic Cabernets?

The so-called Left Bank of the Gironde in Bordeaux is the benchmark for collectors. In great vintages like 2000, 2005, 2009 and 2010 it’s hard to go wrong. Obviously the 1st Growths are spectacular but expect to pay over one thousand dollars per bottle. But you can buy wines that are much less expensive and arguably just as good quality. My favorites are Ducru Beaucaillou in St Julien, Pichon Lalande in Pauillac, and Smith Haut Lafitte in Pessac.

Napa Valley has stolen my heart. It’s not just the wines, but it’s also the wonderful hospitality and beautiful weather from May until September. It’s so difficult to pick out favorites without listing 50 wineries, but Heitz Cellars, Stags Leap Wine Cellars, Shafer and Chateau Montelena are on my short list. And if you go to Napa, make sure you visit Spring Mountain Vineyard. It’s like a journey into the Garden of Eden.

Wine critics love to compare Bordeaux and Napa, but frankly they are quite different in style. Napa is more about richness, ripeness, power and concentration, with softer, plushier tannins, and fresher fruit aromas. By contrast, Bordeaux is typically drier, more tannic, not quite as full bodied, and has a more earthy character.

In Coonawarra in South Australia, it’s the fun-loving Ian Hollick whose wines stand out as my own favorites. Coonawarra makes some of the finest Cabernet in the New World. The wines can have very perfumed cassis aromas and minty flavors. They are typically much less expensive than both Bordeaux and Napa, and so they score additional points for their value for money.        

In Chile, it’s the classic Cabernet from Don Melchor, owned by Concha y Toro, which never fails to impress. If you think that only great Bordeaux can age for 10-20 years then think again. This wine proves that Chilean wines can have style, grace, and individuality. You just have to get over the fact that Chile is mainly in the cheap and cheerful category.  

In Tuscany, Sassicaia is one of the benchmark Super-Tuscans. Sassicaia was the winery that started the whole super-Tuscan movement, along with Tignanello, when they made a wine that did not conform to Tuscan wine regulations because it was based on Cabernet Sauvignon. The Italian authorities refused to give it the more prestigious DOCG designation, and relegated it to Vino da Tavola status, making it the world’s most expensive “table wine”.

And then there’s Torres in Spain, whose Mas La Plana can give anyone’s Cabernet a run for their money. Bob Betz in Washington State makes Cabernets that will blow your socks off, and merit the very high ratings his winery consistently receives.

The list could go on. But you’ve probably got enough recommendations to keep you from becoming dehydrated anytime soon. You could call Cabernet the King of wines, and the wine of Kings. But there are others who make this claim, namely the superb sweet wines of Tokaji in Hungary. So perhaps Cabernet is more like “The Emperor” of wines, because at the very pinnacle of quality there’s nothing else like fine Cabernet.

WINE — FOOD SUGGESTION

Chateau Ducru Beaucaillou, Bordeaux — Leg of Lamb

Chateau Smith Haut Lafitte, Bordeaux — Filet Mignon with frites

Heitz Cellars, Martha’s Vineyard, Napa Valley — Roast beef and Yorkshire pudding

Hollick, Coonawarra, Australia — Aged Cheddar Cheese

THE MAGIC OF VALPOLICELLA

Trust the Italians to use the same grapes to make four completely different styles of wine under the Valpolicella banner. First you have the mainstream Valpolicella, which is light and fruity. Second, you have a fuller bodied and richer version called a Ripasso. Then you have a monstrously dense blockbuster called an Amarone, and finally a relatively rare sweet red desert wine called a Recioto.

Maybe the Italians got bored. Maybe they wanted to broaden their portfolio for commercial purposes. Or maybe they got tired of wine snobs criticizing simple Valpolicella and decided to come out with a massive, full bodied, high alcohol Amarone. You almost need a knife and fork when you crack open an Amarone, which is surely amongst Italy’s great wines.

Unlike in most of the New World, there is a real history to production here in north-eastern Italy. Grapes were grown by the ancient Greeks who cultivated the hillsides. The wines were enjoyed by the Courts in the 6th century, and noted for their special powers.

Over the years, Valpolicella became so successful that producers sold everything they could make. Inevitably, growers increased the yields on their vineyards so they could produce more, but the quality of the wines began to slip because the grapes lacked concentration. The local authorities also granted permission for growers to cultivate new areas, which were generally on the fertile plains. These areas were not well suited for high quality vineyards.

So in some respects, Valpolicella became a victim of its own success. The large volumes of simple wine masked the exceptional quality of the best producers. But on the other hand, the reasonable pricing of the wines (usually sub $20) was a bonus for consumers, and the light bodied fruity style made straight Valpolicella the perfect pizza wine. You can chill it, you can drink it within hours of release, and it’s often the house wine at the millions of Italian restaurants that have helped showcase the country’s wines at export.

At the opposite end of the spectrum to straight Valpolicella you have Amarone, which is a stunning wine, revered amongst wine lovers, and made in the most bizarre and unique way. The growers harvest the ripest and healthiest looking bunches from their vineyards, the rest being for regular Valpolicella production. They then take these perfect bunches and spread them out on straw mats, and sometimes they even tie a piece of string to the stems and hang them from the ceiling in a warehouse, or their kitchen, as the case may be. There are not many other winemakers doing this elsewhere in the world…

Over the next five months the grapes then shrivel into raisins, which means the water content evaporates and you are left with a sweet concentrated flavor of dried fruits. The grapes are then fermented, and because they are so rich in sugar the alcohol degree ends up being around 15% and the wines still taste very slightly sweet. After long ageing, they are released onto the market and can be enjoyed for a few decades thereafter.

Amarone is a thrill. The color is almost black, the viscosity coats the glass, the bouquet is heady with notes of dark chocolate, prune, raisin and stewed fruit. The palate is explosive, rich and full, with the high tannins masked by the massive concentration. On the finish the warmth of the alcohol screams for a log cabin, a roaring fireplace, and an iPhone that’s out of range. Many of them cost around $60+ dollars. Of all the more premium wines I’ve shared with people, I’ve never seen someone turn their nose up at an Amarone.

But if you want something a bit more moderate, both in terms of price and quality, then buy a Ripasso. In terms of style, this is halfway between a straight Valpolicella and an Amarone. A Ripasso is a Valpolicella that has been refermented on the skins of the Amarone. This gives it more weight and extract, boosts the alcohol, and makes for a much richer style of wine. Many of them cost between $20-$30 and so they are good value, and make for a perfect match with lasagna.

The last style of Valpolicella is called a Recioto. This is basically a sweeter Amarone, where the ferment has been stopped in order to leave more residual sugar. This is a perfect match with Christmas cake or blue cheese.

Recioto is a unique red wine with an exciting taste. When you drink it you get a burst of energy, and it sends tingling sensations across your taste buds. The combination of sweet dried fruit flavors and black forest cake are to die for, and typically at less than $50 for a bottle it’s one of the world’s buried treasures.

So there are plenty of styles to choose from when it comes to wines from Valpolicella. But what they all have in common is the use of the Corvina grape and it’s cousins, usually complemented by Molinara, Rondinella and others.

Masi is probably the most famous producer, but there are dozens of others to look out for including Bertani, Tommasi, and Allegrini. I always look for the words “Classico” on the label, indicating that the wine was produced from vineyards in the original planted area, which is considered to be the best. And if you’re going to crack a bottle of Amarone, then be sure to decant it for an hour or so, to let the genie out of the bottle.

UNDERSTANDING WINE SCORES

Robert Parker, for many years the world’s leading wine critic, explains on his website that “scores are important for the reader to gauge a professional critic’s overall qualitative placement of a wine.” He goes on to say that “no scoring system is perfect” and “there can never be any substitute for your own palate.”

And that just about sums it up. The bottom line is that wine buyers are faced with an overwhelming amount of choice and it is useful to get some guidance from a professional critic. A wine that scores 95-100 points is a classic, 90-94 points is outstanding, 85-89 is very good, and 80-84 points is just considered to be good. Beyond that, well, you don’t want to know.

But if you dig a little deeper, you’ll find that the point scoring system is very controversial. Some major critics refuse to use it. They think it’s impossible to give a numeric score to something likened to art. Giving points to wine is like giving scores to Picasso’s great works. Beauty is in the eye of the beholder.

Another important reason for not using the 100 point system is because even professional tasters can be inconsistent in their ratings. Dr. Vino, a wine critic, attended a tasting of top flight Bordeaux with Parker himself where all of the wines were tasted blind. The result? Parker’s gave the highest score to a wine that he had scored the lowest in his most recent publication.

Dr. Vino’s published article does give weight to the argument that there is inconsistency even amongst the top critic’s. At the same tasting, Parker identified several Medoc wines as coming from the Right Bank.

The 100 point system also causes confusion amongst the more inquisitive consumers. It’s perplexing that a wine costing hundreds of dollars per bottle can be rated the same as one costing just $15 or $20 dollars. The major critics state that they taste wines within their peer groups. But where exactly does a peer group start and stop?

Take New Zealand Sauvignon Blanc as an example. Would you class wines costing between $15-$20 as a peer group, or is it more like $15-$30 as a price range? The latter price range would be more advantageous to the more expensive wines, at least in theory.

Another argument against the 100 point system is that every wine seems to get at least 85 points. In fact, the ratings start at 50 points and if a wine is particularly poor then the review may not get published. Today, a score between 85 and 88 isn’t worth much to a winery or the trade. It’s the 90 pointers that make an impact.  

But there’s also the related issue of how tough the scorer is relative to another critic. Some wine critics rarely give over 90 points to a wine, whereas others seem to be running out of points.

The “anti-point” contingent argues that the major critics, who make markets with their scores, have become so powerful that producers are making wines just to suit their palates. There is some truth to this claim. This can result in homogeneity of wine styles, where all red wines look very dark in color, have gobs of sweet fruit, and no shortage of power and concentration. This is a shame, because part of the richness of wine is the celebration of its diversity.

But the bottom line is that the 100 point system is the most consumer-friendly and it helps the wine industry too. If a winery scores highly then the cash register will start ringing. The major trade buyers are more inclined to list it because they know it will help sell wine. And sales representatives, Sommeliers, and retailers love it because it gives third party endorsement to what they are saying.

Keep in mind that it’s usually only the better quality wines that get scored. The wines that sell massive volumes at inexpensive prices are not usually rated, and this seems wrong, given that this is where the majority of consumers are looking for advice.

I believe that the major wine critics act in the best interest of the consumer, and are trying to simply give some guidance to the best of their ability. A score is easier to understand than a flowery tasting note. Numeric scores immediately give an indication of the relative quality of the wine. And essentially it’s that, an indication of quality, but it’s not a perfect system.

But finally, I would caution the consumer. Tasting wine and scoring wine is tricky business. The critics can be wrong, sometimes very wrong. The actual tasting skills of some critics is debatable. And lastly, they may be tasting and scoring wines in very challenging conditions. At some of the major competitions a critic is often asked to score 100 wines before lunch. Absurd…

OAK BARRELS, WHAT’S ALL THE FUSS ABOUT?

You simply couldn’t make many of the world’s greatest wines without oak barrels. It’s as simple as that. Take the barrel out of Chateau Lafite and, well, it wouldn’t be selling for a few thousand bucks a bottle anymore.

Oak does much more to a wine than just add nuances of vanilla, spice, and toasty notes. Perhaps most importantly, barrels act as the lungs of a wine, allowing it to slowly breathe through the microscopic pores. This can result in a tiny amount of oxidation, which can help fill out the wine, giving it more depth, breadth and complexity. But that’s not all it does. Barrels can potentially add wood tannins to the wine, giving it more structure, changing the texture, and possibly allowing it to age for longer. Barrel aging can also change the color of wine, usually making white wines deeper.

As such, winemakers go gaga over oak barrels. Their barrel cellar is their pride and joy. They love leaning against a barrel, wine thief in hand, explaining their preference for one toasting level over another, or perhaps a certain forest, or their adoration for a certain cooperage. At around $1,200 for a top French oak barrel these are expensive toys and the barrel bill is likely to be the largest capital expense each year after labor costs.

The marriage of wine and wood is a complex subject. First, you have a variety of different types of wood that either are, or have been, used on wine. Pine, and certainly pine resin, imparts a rather distinctive taste, best left to lovers of Retsina. Other types of wood, such as chestnut, are occasionally used, but sometimes impart harsh flavors into the wine. So the coopers have settled on oak as the best type of wood amongst all the options.  

There are, of course, different species of oak tree. The species that is most commonly used from America is called quercus alba, which comes from around Missouri. Some winemakers describe it as having overt coconut flavors, and being too loud, obnoxious and in-your –face. But frankly, I’ve had some extremely delicious wines made out of American oak. Old style Rioja is typically aged in American oak, and that’s hardly obnoxious wine.

On the cost front, you have the benefit of American oak costing half as much as French oak because more can be extracted from the tree. The trees are typically 80-120 years old before being harvested, so there’s some planning ahead involved.  

The French oak species, known as quercus robur, is the species that is the most highly prized. But even within France there are different forests, and each forest has its own terroir, and so the trees grow differently. Therefore, the wood not only tastes different from one forest to another, but the size of the pores can vary, changing the degree of oxygenation. Most winemakers say that French oak is more subtle, with more spice and nutty flavors.

Once a tree is harvested it is taken to the cooperage and cut into staves, which look like planks. Some coopers then put these in stacks and leave them outside to be seasoned. As the planks of wood are exposed to the elements the undesirable tannins seep out, and after three years only the finest flavors and tannins remain. Other coopers think this is a waste of time, and they kiln dry the wood, so it is ready in a matter of weeks after the harvest. But the cognoscenti frown on this. You can’t hurry perfection.

Once the staves have been seasoned they are put into the hands of the barrel maker, who will toast the wood over an open fire to char it. The more it is “smoked” the stronger the toasty flavors in the wine. This is an art. Some barrels may need a light toasting, whereas others may need longer, and of course there’s always the option of toasting the heads of the barrel too. Other cooperages leave the decision to technology, and have an electronic nose sniff around in there to determine if certain aromatic compounds are present. As a winery, you can order your barrels with an extra dose of vanilla if you so wish…

The barrels are then shipped off around the world, ready for the Cabernet, Merlot, Syrah, Malbec, Pinot Noir, and various other red varietals that commonly go into them. A handful of whites like Chardonnay are often aged in barrel too, and sometimes Sauvignon Blanc can be fermented and aged in barrel, like in California or Bordeaux.

It then falls into the hands of the winemaker as to how he might use his precious toys. Most are nervous about over-oaking a wine and it’s a fine line to tread between getting the most out of a barrel and not over-doing it. As such, many winemakers don’t use 100% new oak, and instead use both one and two year old barrels. But on the other hand, there are wineries that produce such dense wines that 100% new oak treatment is the way to go, and some cult wines even go for 200% new oak by using a new set of barrels half way through the ageing process. The bottom line is that there is no magic formula and every winemaker will have his own preferences.

But when it comes to modern wine-drinkers tastes, we’ve been told that we shouldn’t like oaky wines anymore. All those vanilla and toasty notes, accompanied by a dose of melted butter, is no longer in style. But just wait 10 years, and it’ll be all the rage again.

To learn more about the wonderful world of wine take a course at www.FineVintageLtd.com It’s time and money well spent.

CELLARING WINES

WHY START A CELLAR?

There’s something magical about going down to a wine cellar and rummaging through stacks of dusty old bottles. After lengthy deliberations with yourself, you select the perfect bottle, and then emerge victorious to rapturous applause from your thirsty friends.

It’s great fun to have a stash of wine. It’s one of the pleasures of life. Each bottle has a story to tell. Some might have sentimental value, others are kept for a special occasion, and hopefully most of them have increased in value. Yes, you can potentially make big bucks on wine as an investment, but that’s another story.

The main reason for cellaring wines is to allow them to improve in quality. Over time some wines can develop amazingly complex bouquets and flavors. Great wine needs time to evolve and mature, and it is only with cellaring that fine wines show their true pedigree. Sadly, the vast majority of high quality wines are drunk far too young.

In fact, the current situation in the fine wine world is a bit sad. Consumers typically want immediate gratification and most bottles are opened within 24 hours of purchase. Producers don’t want to be the ones financing stocks. It’s already expensive and takes long enough to make wine, so selling it soon after bottling is the name of the game. The result: great wines are put on the market far too soon and consumers guzzle them before they’ve had time to show their magic.

Coming from me, it’s a bit ironic to say that you should be more patient. But patience has its rewards. Start a cellar, and start thinking and planning long-term. You’ll be glad you did.  

But what types of wine should you buy and how can you tell if a wine should be cellared? A certain amount of experience and expertise in tasting goes a long way, but here are the key things to look for.

TASTING FOR CELLARING POTENTIAL

First, evaluate the overall quality of the wine. If it is a poor quality wine then it will usually only get worse.

Second, wines need to have good structure in order to age well. I have a close look at the tannins in reds. Wines should have quite high amounts of fine tannins to give them structure, and these tannins will soften over time. What I’d be worried about is green tannins, and any other signs of a lack of ripeness. Green notes don’t tend to go away…

Both red and whites should have a reasonable amount of acidity too, which will help keep them alive. Acidity is really the spine of the wine, and is the key reason for wines like Mosel Riesling ageing so effortlessly for decades.

There should also be a good degree of fruit ripeness because wines lose their primary fruitiness as they age. If a wine is lacking ripeness and concentration, then it won’t have the stuffing to take it the distance.

Finally, all of these components need to be in balance. So look for some harmony between the fruit, acid, tannin and alcohol. If the alcohol is so high that it feels like you’re drinking Tequila then this is only going to get worse with age.

SELECTING REGIONS AND VARIETIES WITH PROVEN TRACK RECORDS

Another way to approach it is to focus on high quality wines that come from classic regions with a track record of improving with age. White wines like top quality vintage Champagnes, fine German and Alsatian Rieslings, some great white Burgundy (especially Grand Cru Chablis) and Bordeaux, and curiosities like Hunter valley Semillon can all age well. A good cellar has a nice selection of white wines so don’t overlook these.

The list of reds is much longer. I’d get excited to see stacks of northern Rhone reds from Hermitage and Cote Rotie, throw in some Chateauneuf-du-Pape, and a healthy dose of benchmark Burgundy from the Cote de Nuits. From Bordeaux the classic appellations of the Medoc and the wines from St. Emilion and Pomerol are a must. Without them it’s just not a serious cellar.

From Italy the essentials would include Barolos, Barbarescos, Brunellos, Super-Tuscans and Amarones. Don’t forget Rioja, Ribera del Duero and Priorat from Spain, classic Napa Cabernets, and the icon wines from Chile, Argentina and Australia.

Finish off the cellar with a section of the great sweet wines from the Loire, Sauternes and Tokaji. Throw in a few cases of vintage Port and you’ve got enough supplies to see you through any dinner party. Think of it as the ultimate Emergency Preparedness kit.

WHEN DO I KNOW TO DRINK THEM?

The next question is when to actually drink all these treasures? Wines go through three key phases. They are either improving, at peak, or past their best. The trick is to buy at least three bottles of anything you decide to cellar. Check on the internet when the critics are saying the ideal drinking window is. When you think a wine might be approaching its time then crack open a bottle and see how you like it.

If I think a wine is fantastic then I scribble that down on the actual label. I’ll write a note on the label about how much longer I think it can cellar for. So on the empty bottle you’ll read something like – OUTSTANDING! Drunk August 25th 2017, Hold 2-4 yrs more.

But if the wine is not showing well and is simply too young then I’m inclined to give it a long period in a decanter to help it open up, and note on the label that the next bottle shouldn’t be drunk before a certain date.

Sometimes people wonder what all the fuss is about with wine. Why are some people seemingly mad about wine? Their passion and excitement can border on a clinical condition. Well, if you’ve tasted fine wines that are a few decades old, you’ll know that the bouquet and flavors are like nothing else on earth.

To become a better taster and learn more about wines worth cellaring take a wine course at www.FineVintageLtd.com It’s time and money well spent.

How to start a career and get a job in the wine industry

I’m fascinated by wine and want to make a career change. How can I get a job in the wine industry?

There are so many different options for working in the wine industry. The two key sectors are production and sales, but there are dozens of others to consider.

If you want to get into production then the best way to start is by getting a job at a winery as a cellar hand. Simply go and visit, and ask to speak to the Winemaker. It’s remarkably easy to get a job helping out during the harvest, which is the most exciting time of the year.

Obviously a job with a fair amount of physical labor won’t pay a fortune, but you’ll quickly figure out if production is for you. Make sure you work for someone who speaks your language, and someone who will take you under their wing. Otherwise, you’ll have no idea why you’re doing the various tasks. Ask to spend 2-3 days doing a task like operating the press, doing punch-downs or working in the lab, and then move on. It’s pointless to spend 3 months doing the exact same thing in a winery.

If you like working in a vineyard or a winery, then it’s time to take some courses. UC Davis in California is well regarded, and they have some good courses in Washington State too. Obviously France, Australia and NZ have some of the very best schools but perhaps less convenient depending on where you live or want to go.

These days it’s important to have formal training. Some growers and winemakers seem to just take a few courses here and there, and miraculously declare themselves as professionals. There’s a frightening amount of this in Canada. My suggestion, if you want to be serious, is to get a degree.

Whilst studying you could start to specialize in a certain area, because expertise in a particular field like irrigation or oak barrels will help you tremendously in your career. Maybe you can be the world expert on a tiny bug that attacks the vine, or develop a new technology to help with the science of winemaking. Then you have something…

On the sales front, many people start in wine retail. It’s pretty easy to walk into a shop and ask for a job paying a low hourly rate. But it is a great place to start. You’ll have the chance to taste lots of different wines and learn from your colleagues. Most importantly, you’ll start to understand consumer behavior and that will be invaluable in the years to come.

Alternatively, one of the best jobs is as a Sales Rep. I loved the freedom to disappear into the city with a trunk full of samples. You’ll get to meet dozens of customers in the hospitality and retail industries. Along with a start in wine retail, this is probably the best way to learn the ropes.

In terms of formal education in Sales and Marketing, you could do an MBA at a number of different schools. Sonoma State, Bordeaux and Adelaide have excellent programs. Having these qualifications, which can often be done part-time over 12-18 months can really open doors and help with your career. And don’t forget, there is much more money in sales and marketing compared to the average salaries in production so that’s something to consider too.

After getting some formal training like an MBA, you could consider working in export sales. It can be fun to fly around the world selling wine, although after a few years hotel rooms and airports quickly lose their appeal. Eventually, many people working in sales start their own import companies or become brokers, or develop their own trading business of one type or another. These can flourish.

There are dozens of other niche businesses. If you want to be a wine writer then getting accredited is a good start, although it doesn’t seem to be mandatory. Writing doesn’t seem to pay much for all but the top 10 in the world and even they seem to moan about the low pay. But they do like the incredible experiences, the travel, the wonderful wines and effectively they can live like a millionaire so that counter-balances the fees paid by magazines and newspapers. Sadly, very few people in the world are interested in reading about wine, at least compared to food.

Designing packaging and websites could be another area to consider, and the top designers can do very well. Or maybe you want to be a professional Wine Buyer or Consultant; although a certain amount of training is required before you make purchasing recommendations or dish out advice. Or maybe you want to rep a line of glasses, or have a wine storage business, or do in-store tastings en masse for large companies, or analyze wines at auction to see if they are fake, or be a Sommelier, or work in logistics, or, or , or… The good news is that there are hundreds of options. Just start thinking out of the box.

To get started you can visit www.WineJobsCanada.com , www.WineJobsUSA.com, www.WineJobsEngland.co.uk, or one of our other sites in HK, Oz, or NZ. I hope you’ll find the perfect job that meets all your needs.

What’s the story on all the different wine education providers?

Now that you’ve chosen a path you need to chose a guide. And not all Sherpa’s will get you to the top of the mountain.

I started our company Fine Vintage precisely because I was horrified by the terrible experience I had at some other schools. Shitty wines, boring instructors, and presentations that were as exciting as watching paint dry. Harsh, but true.

You have to be taught by someone who has some qualifications and experience themselves, otherwise it’s like the blind leading the blind. If the instructor doesn’t really know how to taste then they might do you more harm than good. So check-out your instructor. Ours all have the Level 4 Diploma, are in the MW program, or are industry veterans.

Then you need to taste good wines and lots of them. You don’t learn much by tasting a couple of wines that all cost under $20, but the wine school sure saves money… We spend over double, often triple what other wine schools spend on wine. Yup, it stings when I see the monthly wine expense report.

But it’s our Fine Vintage mantra to pour outstanding wines and lots of them. That is a key reason why we have over 4,000 students per year coming back to take their next course with us. We all fell in love with wine because of the amazing aromas and flavours we discovered in that first magic bottle, and that’s why we come back again and again.

Another major point for you to consider are the exam pass rates at the various schools. There’s not much point going to a school where the failure rate is shockingly high. Obviously with the higher Levels the onus becomes increasingly on you to study and prepare for exams because the body of knowledge is too voluminous to be covered exclusively in the classroom. But your Sherpa should be able to help you stay on track, on a schedule, and ensure you know what lies ahead.

At my own schools we have one of the highest pass rates around the world, and have been nominated and awarded as WSET Educator of the Year more times than any other school in the world in the last 10 years. Every day I receive copies of student’s exam results and it’s always a thrill to exchange a few e-mails with our wonderful instructors congratulating them, and then be able to tell our students the good news.

To learn more about the wonderful world of wine take a course from us at www.FineVintageLtd.com